Mastering Habits with Incentives and Rewards

Mastering Habits with Incentives and Rewards

🌟 Mastering Habits with Incentives and Rewards | Dr. Lisa Riegel 🌟

Discover the secrets to transforming your daily habits with Dr. Lisa Riegel in this enlightening presentation, “Mastering Habits with Incentives and Rewards.” Whether you’re looking to boost productivity, improve health, or achieve personal goals, this video provides actionable insights on harnessing the power of incentives and rewards to cultivate lasting, positive habits.

📚 In This Video, You Will Learn:

The psychology behind habit formation and why incentives work Effective strategies for setting up rewards to reinforce good habits Practical examples of using incentives to maintain motivation Tips for overcoming common obstacles in habit-building How to create a sustainable habit loop with rewards

🧠 About Dr. Lisa Riegel:

Dr. Lisa Riegel is a renowned expert in behavioral psychology and habit formation. With years of research and practical experience, she offers invaluable advice on creating and maintaining habits that can lead to a more fulfilling and productive life.

💡 Why Watch This Video? 

Learn proven techniques to build and sustain healthy habits Get inspired by real-life examples and success stories Unlock the potential of incentives to drive personal and professional growth

👍 Don’t Forget to Like, Comment, and Subscribe! Stay updated with the latest insights and tips on personal development by subscribing to our channel. Hit the notification bell so you never miss an update!

📈 Tags: #HabitFormation #Incentives #Rewards #JAKAPA #PersonalDevelopment #Productivity #Motivation #SelfImprovement

🔗 Related Videos: Understanding Your Brain and Stress: How to Reset a Broken Stress Response:    • Understanding Your Brain and Stress: …  

🌟 Watch Now and Start Your Journey to Mastering Habits!

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Today we are talking about changing habits.

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what research says about rewards and incentives.

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I’m Dr. Lisa Regal. I am one of the co-founders of Jakapa and I’m

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super excited that you made some time today to join us for our coffee

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chat. What we are going to be talking about today is habits and

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then how to incentivize and reward changing habits.

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first question is why are habits so hard to change?

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And part of the is because the way our brain is set up.

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So our brain is like a giant highway. It has on ramps and off

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ramps and what happens just like a highway.

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If we were going to build a highway in the middle of a field

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it would just be grass. And then if you want to build an off

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ramp you have to start paving your way through that grass and through repetition

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over and over and over again that pathway becomes more and more

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paved and even and easier to to navigate.

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So if you have If you’re on a highway and there’s an exit that

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hasn’t been built yet, it would be pretty hard to come off of it.

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So our brains are like this and through even when we’re young babies that

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initial experience with our parents,

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where we cry and our parents show up and they take care of our

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needs. And then later we learn that when we smile,

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we get lots of positive attention from the adults around us.

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Those early experiences are repeated thousands of times and they created very

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well-worn off-ramp for us.

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When I cry, I get attention. When I want attention and I smile,

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I get positive reinforcement. And so over time,

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those things become well-worn and they become habits.

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Our off-ramps are our habitual responses.

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And while that one’s positive, where you can smile and you get some positive

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feedback, we also develop some really negative off-ramps.

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So you might think about, you know, when I start to feel stressed,

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I get angry. And so, you know, that I’m on the highway,

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I feel stressed. My first exit ramp is I’m angry and maybe I yell

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at people. And then later on, I wish I hadn’t done that because that

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wasn’t the right choice for me. So our offerings that become habitual

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responses, the problem is that those offerings are paved and they’re super smooth and

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they become automatic offerings for us.

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It’s kind of like driving home where you don’t even really remember driving home,

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it’s the same kind of thing. You just automatically,

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that is the response without even thinking.

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So when we change our habits, we need a new exit ramp.

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So there’s several things that have to happen in order for us to build

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that new exit ramp. First of all, we have to have the knowledge to

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decide where to go instead. We have to realize there’s a different option than

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the one we’re using. So for example,

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say that when you get stressed you eat and eventually you decide you want

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to lose weight, you have to find and have knowledge that there are other

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options that will relieve your stress besides eating.

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Then you have to have the self-awareness to drive past that comfortable exit.

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So our first response because it has become automatic and habitual is to

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go grab the hog and dust. So we have to have the self-awareness of

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I don’t want to get off at that exit and I have to drive

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past it to go to the exit that’s more positive or comfortable or aligned

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with what I want to do for myself.

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Then we also have to have the will to be uncomfortable.

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So think about being on a highway again. If you’re driving down the highway

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and you have to use the restroom and you have the habitual response of

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as soon as I am uncomfortable and I have to go the restroom,

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I’m getting off at the next exit and I’m gonna go to the bathroom.

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Well, maybe when you do that, you end up at an exit ramp where

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it’s not safe. And so you get off to go to the restroom and

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you end up mug. Well, now you’re on the highway and you’re like,

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okay, I’m on the same stretch of highway. I have to use the bathroom

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again. I have to be willing to be uncomfortable for the next two miles

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or five miles until I can get to the exit that is a better

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choice for me. And it’s the same way with all kinds of habits.

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We have to understand there’s somewhere else to go.

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We have to know that we have to drive past that comfortable exit.

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And then we have to have the will to be uncomfortable because it’s hard

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to try new things. And the first few times we try it,

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we’re gonna clink around. We’re not gonna be experts at it.

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And so we have to have that will. We also have to have the

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energy to pave the exit ramp. And as we all know when we’re stressed

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out, we’re just tired. We just want to do what we know how to

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do. And we don’t have the mental energy to be doing all that thinking,

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to think about, oh, I want to go here instead,

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and to be strategic about getting off at the right exit,

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and to be able to pave this new exit ramp.

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We also have to have persistence, because as I mentioned before,

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this analogy of the exit ramp, you have to go over and over and

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over and over that in order to make it automatic and to make the

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exit comfortable for you to get off. Otherwise it’s going to be lumpy and

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it’s going to be difficult on you and the car and everything else.

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Finally, you have to have the tenacity to forgive yourself when you revert to

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the old exit using the weight loss example or an eating when you’re

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stressed, you have to forgive yourself because there are going to be times you

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just get off that exit without thinking and you grab the hog and dust

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and then later you feel really guilty about it and you feel like,

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why did I do that? It’s not, I’m just going to give it up.

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And what we have to do is be able to say,

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okay, we made a mistake, I’m going to forgive myself and I’m going to

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continue to push myself to pave this new exit ramp in my mind.

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And then finally, you have to have this support to develop that automaticity.

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And what that support means is that you have people around you who believe

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in you, who encourage you, who recognize when you’re trying to change your habits,

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who give you positive feedback when they see it working successfully.

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And overall, we don’t do very well with changing habits.

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In fact, New Year’s resolutions, they’ve done some research on these and they find

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that 65 percent of people fail to achieve their goals.

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8% of respondents within one month have abandoned their goals.

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22% have abandoned them within two months.

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Another 22 within three months and 13 additional fail within four

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months. So it’s difficult. What we know about resolutions,

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mental health and physical health is the number one resolution and number

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two resolution for the 23 24 year 20% of

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people say they’ll keep themselves accountable and this is kind of noteworthy this was

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from 2024 in 2023 77% of us believe

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that we could keep ourselves accountable and that has cut by two

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thirds. So that’s kind of an interesting thing too is that we’re in a

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time where maybe it’s more difficult with all the stresses around us to stay

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focused and stay on the pathway to regulate our goals and achieve them.

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80% of people believe they will achieve their goals.

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And so that’s kind of another telling story is that 80% believe they will

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achieve them, but 65% fail to achieve their goals.

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So when we think about goal attainment,

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it’s really important that we think about how we set our goals,

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what they look like and how we support ourselves as we’re trying to make

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these changes in behavior. So first of all,

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there’s three types of goals. And when you’re getting started in setting goals,

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or if you’re working with a student or your child or yourself to set

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goals, there’s a linear relationship among these types of goals.

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So, the easiest goals are process goals.

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So, process goals are specific actions or processes.

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So, when I am stressed, I am not eating ice cream.

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When I am stressed, I’m going to go for a walk or I’m going

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to breathe deeply. These are things that we have 100% control over.

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And so, thinking about, like, I’m going to study two hours after dinner every

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day. That’s something that you have complete control over.

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Then you move into performance goals. And performance goals are based on the personal

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standard. So it’s like I’m going to get a 3.5 GPA.

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I’m going to lose 20 pounds. These are mostly controllable,

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but there are things outside of our control. For a grade point average,

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you have to rely on a teacher to give you the grade.

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And so it’s not 100% within your control.

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Finally, the outcome goals, these are based on winning.

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And these are really hard to achieve because they are outside influences play a

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big role in whether or not or successful. So you might say,

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I’m going to land a job this year, I’m going to win a competition.

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You could do everything right and still lose that competition because somebody else beat

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you, or you could be the best candidate that they have,

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but there’s one other person that just has something else that they want and

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they end up selecting that person. So when we start to think about changing

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habits, the first step is to make sure that the goals that we’re setting

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are the ones that we have the most control over.

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So, how to then create a goal and achieve that goal is to say,

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okay, I want something specific. So,

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I want to be clear about what I want to accomplish.

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So, instead of just saying, I’m going to be healthier this year,

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that’s really, really not specific. So,

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you want to say something like, I’m going to go to the gym three

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times a week, or I am going to five days a week eat enough

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protein or, you know, have less than 1500 calories or 2000

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calories or whatever. Those are clear,

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and then they’re also measurable. So when we have clear goals,

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they’re measurable. We can measure whether or not we went to the gym.

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We can measure whether or not we ate what we said we were going

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to eat. The other piece is to be attainable to be realistic.

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Sometimes people set new year’s resolutions that are outlandish and they’re so far away

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from what they can actually achieve that they give up on them because the

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progress is too slow. So,

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you know, again, using the analogy of losing weight or getting healthy because pretty

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much everybody at some point in their life has considered this.

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You know, if I say, I want to lose a hundred pounds.

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A hundred pounds is a lot of weight. So maybe what I do instead

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is have a measurable goal that says, I want to lose 10 pounds a

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month. And that’s realistic within a time frame.

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We also want the goals to be relevant.

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So thinking about what you need and your long-term vision,

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rather than just setting goals to set goals or setting goals that are relevant

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to somebody else and not yourself. And finally,

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you want to make sure you put a time frame on your goals and

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chunk them so that you can celebrate. So maybe you chunk it by month

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or by week. I’m going to go to the gym three times per week.

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Versus, I’m going to go to the gym regularly this month.

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It gives you a specific timeframe with specific measurable so that when you achieve

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that in a month, you can really celebrate yourself.

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So, here are some tips for goal setting that you can use for yourself

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or, you know, people in your family or your students.

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The first is to set those smart goals, and that’s what I just went

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over, specific and measurable and attainable and realistic and timely.

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You want to set your goals in the present tense.

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You also want to set short and long term goals and that helps keep

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you motivated because as you meet the short term goals,

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you can feel good about yourself and you can celebrate and those short term

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goals stack on to a longer term goal that you have.

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You also want to align goals, you know, we can only do so many

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things. And as we mentioned in the beginning of this,

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your brain’s like a highway and it takes a lot of energy and attention

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and work and will and tenacity to achieve a goal.

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And so if you’ve got 15 different goals running or even five different goals

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running. And they’re all disconnected from each other.

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It becomes too much to manage. So if you’re thinking of a long-term goal

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and you’re saying, I want to be healthier, then you can start to break

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down and align some goals around, you know,

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what you do for exercise, what you do for eating,

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what you do for stress control or self care.

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And then now all of those goals are feeding into the same overarching goal.

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The other thing that’s important that we often don’t do is to write down

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your goals and put them somewhere you see them.

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So know, put a sticky note on your mirror so every morning you’re brushing

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your teeth and right there is that goal in front of you reminding you

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this is what I want to do. In Jakapa,

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we have an entire process for this where you can enter your goals each

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week. You can keep the same goals for multiple weeks.

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You can run multiple goals at once if you want,

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but they’re in writing and you’re what am I doing every single day to

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help get to the goal that I have?

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And then you’re logging every day. Did I do what I said I was

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going to do? So it helps to hold you accountable.

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The other thing for goal setting is to share your goals.

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Peer supports really important. And so if you tell the world,

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I’m going to do this. Then again,

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with the weight loss example or the being healthier example,

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if you’ve shared this with all your friends, then they might say,

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You know, instead of saying, hey, let’s get together and go have an ice

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cream cone, they might say, hey, let’s get together and have a cup of

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coffee. They can support you in your goals.

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The other thing you want to do is develop an action plan.

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You want to really think about when am I going to do the action

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each day that’s going to help me achieve my goal?

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How am I going to make this work within the schedule I already have?

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Sometimes we set goals that, you know, it’s just not possible.

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So if you’re working three jobs and or two jobs and,

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you your days are filled from seven in the morning till seven at night.

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It may not be realistic that you’re going to then turn around and go

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to a gym and work out for,

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you know, an hour. It might just not be doable to do that every

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day. You might have to figure out what action plan’s going to work the

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best for you. And maybe even incorporate some of your movement into your daily

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work so that you’re able to kind of double dip.

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You also want to be flexible. Things happen. Life happens.

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One of the reasons people don’t achieve their new year’s goals is because something

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happens and or they fail one day They go it off the wrong exit

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ramp and they go well that’s it. I’m not you know I’m done so

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you might want to be flexible with yourself and say okay There’s some things

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outside of my control that I need to rework my action plan Really really

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important to reward yourself So when you and we’re gonna talk about rewards a

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little bit later of what’s the appropriate weight of reward yourself but you have

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to celebrate the little things and celebrate the milestones and celebrate the efforts you’re

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making and not just whether or not you achieve the actual outcome you wanted.

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And then finally reflect, you know, one of the important things when we built

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Jakapa, one of our big goals is that people become more self-aware,

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that they have data that they can use to develop some insights into patterns

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in their life, patterns in their behavior,

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so that they can develop that self-reflection in that self-awareness.

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And so take time periodically to stop and reflect.

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When am I meeting my goals, are there certain days of the week that

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I’m doing what I’m supposed to do to get to where I want to

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be or there is there a pattern in certain days of the week where

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I’m just not there. And then how can I be flexible to figure out

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how I can incorporate whatever my action steps are that I want to do

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so that I can be successful. So achieving goals starts

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with clarity and if you remember mental health and physical health for the number

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one and number two goals set in 2023,

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2024. So when you’re setting your goals and this kind of gets into that

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specificity asking yourself like what is mental health,

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what is physical health and deciding for yourself,

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what does that mean to you? Maybe mental health means that you don’t

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have any outbursts in a week or that you spend time meditating or

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that you are doing yoga to connect your mind and your body.

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Or maybe mental health is that you’re not taking on more things than you

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can possibly manage and then feeling overwhelmed and stressed all the time.

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Or maybe mental health is a part of finding a work life balance where

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you’re in a job that you enjoy and that you’re able to leave some

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of that at work so that you can go home and be fully engaged

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with your family. Thinking of physical health,

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you know, physical health can mean a lot of different things to a lot

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of different people. Maybe it’s being pain-free.

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I’ve had a few spinal fusions and had lots of problems with my back

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in the past. So for me, physical health,

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you know, the kidneys in the back, it’s in the review mirror for me.

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But it’s not about that, it’s not about how I look,

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it’s about bone density, and it’s about strength and control over my body and

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it’s about reducing pain. So it’s important that when you’re achieving goals,

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you start with clarity. And this is even behavioral goals as well.

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So you want, you know, what is academic success?

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So when you’re working with your child or if you’re working with students,

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you know, what getting straight A’s doesn’t always have to define academic

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success. What does it mean to be a successful learner?

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And spending some time to really think about that.

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and then that way, you can backward map the actions you need to do

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to get there. Incentives and rewards are not about a token economy.

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In a lot of schools today, they use something called positive behavior intervention supports,

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and it becomes a token economy where they identify the expectations for behaviors and

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classrooms or hallways or at the lunch room,

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and then they reward when they see those behaviors happening.

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What happens when you do that is you create a transactional culture where it’s

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about what do I get out of this as opposed to altruistic behavior

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or behavior that is just good behavior because it’s how you interact in a

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community. So you want to be careful with incentives and rewards because it’s not

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just about prizes. They should aim to build motivation and efficacy.

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Efficacy means that you believe that you have what it takes,

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you have the skills in the drive to be able to overcome obstacles and

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achieve. And so there’s four different ways that we actually build efficacy and

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they’re on the screen here. The first is master experience,

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so it’s just getting up that courage to just do it.

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The second is, by carrying this experience,

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it’s watching others do it. So if you are a support person who’s trying

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to help somebody achieve their goal, you doing the action steps that they’re trying

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to do can be really helpful. That’s why,

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again, going back to the work out analogy.

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If you go to the gym and you don’t know what you’re doing,

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you’ve done it, you’ve gone to the gym, but you might leave sort of

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deflated or like I don’t know what I’m doing and it can actually serve

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to decrease your sense of efficacy that you can actually achieve your goal.

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But if you do it with a friend who’s been to the gym before

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and they can show you around and you can watch what they’re doing,

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you start to gain some confidence in your own ability.

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The third area is emotional arousal. Have you ever had one of those moments

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where something really great happened and you just a call somebody and

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yet nobody’s around to talk to you about it and slowly your energy and

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your excitement about something just sort of fades away.

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I have a funny story about emotional arousal.

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I when I got my very first job as a teacher I was so

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excited and these were in the days before cell phones and so I didn’t

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have anybody to call on my cell phones so I stopped at a rest

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area because I had driven to Columbus,

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Ohio and I actually lived up in Africa, Ohio. So I had like a

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two-hour drive home and I was all excited and I didn’t know where to

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put my energy. So I got to this rest area and I,

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you know, called my mom and she wasn’t home and I called my boyfriend

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at the time and he wasn’t home and I called my roommate and she

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wasn’t home and I was just bursting with I needed to tell somebody.

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So there was actually a police officer there and he looked at me,

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he’s like, are you okay? And I’m like, I just have to seven minute

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and he said on a park bench with me and let me tell him

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all about my experience, all about what I did,

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where I was proud about my interview and it was the funniest thing and

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I just still remember like he has to have gone home and then like

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I met a lunatic today who was all excited about this new job that

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she got, but he played a really important role for me because as you

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do something new and you experience something new and you achieve your goals,

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you’re super excited about it and you want to share it with somebody.

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So as we think about celebrating, If there are people in your home or

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in your classroom who are trying to to achieve to change to build those

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new exit ramps in their brain, giving them time to tooth their own horn

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to celebrate to process is really important.

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And then the final piece is peer persuasion.

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This is the idea of, this is how we do it.

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This is what we do. So setting those norms in your home,

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setting those norms in your classroom, putting in routines in place,

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where it just becomes the culture of how we do it.

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When I work with schools, I talk a lot about developing a culture of

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wellness. We oftentimes think of behavior management as we need to control

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behavior. We need to tell people what to do and then give them rewards

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when they do what we tell them. But that’s really about compliance and it’s

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about control. So when you think about actually building efficacy,

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that gives people the sense of I can achieve my goals and gives this

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internal a locust of commitment,

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it’s about what’s the community that we have in this classroom and

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how do we behave in this community? And it changes the whole focus.

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It becomes just this is how we do it. And the peer,

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you know, peer persuasions a nice way of saying peer pressure.

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So as you’re thinking about your goals,

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the first step is to set a reasonable goal and really think about it

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and clarify what your measures of success are.

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And then the second is to think about how do I build motivation and

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efficacy to achieve those goals?

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And motivation is actually a math equation.

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So there’s research talks about motivation through what’s called the expectancy value equation.

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And you can see here expectancy multiplied by value equals motivation.

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And just like in a multiplication problem,

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if either of those are negative,

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then the outcome is negative. So if you have low expectancy and you don’t

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believe you can do it, even if you value what you’re talking about,

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you’re not going to be motivated to do it. Conversely,

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if you know you can do it, you have high expectancy,

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but you don’t value what you’re being asked to do,

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you’re not going to be motivated to do it. And I have two pictures

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on here, because gardening is something that from a value perspective,

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I love, I love a good garden, I love going to a garden show

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and doing the home tours. I think flowers are beautiful,

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but my lived experience, my expectancy is that I basically kill everything that

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plant and I kill everything that’s a house plant.

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So I do not believe I will be successful.

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So instead of figuring out how to raise that expectancy,

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I bring down the value. And I basically say,

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eh, perennial gardens fine and I’ll get some artificial plants if I want some

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greens in my house. So I’m not motivated.

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Conversely, the running example, can I run?

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Sure, I can put one foot in front of the other,

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but do I value running? I don’t value it because it hurts.

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And because there’s other things that I can do and with the the back

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issues that I’ve had running is just not my friend.

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And so I’m not motivated to do it even though I can do it.

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So when you think about this in regard to students,

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you know, what are they motivated to do?

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Well, they’re motivated to play video games. They’re motivated to play sports.

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They’re motivated to do their interest because they have value in them.

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And I like the video game example, gaming theory is based

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motivation theory. So if you’re playing a video game,

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do you expect to do well? Well, of course you do,

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because a game designer isn’t going to design a game where you get stuck

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on a level and you can’t ever move up to the next level.

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So for example, if you have to build a castle in a level,

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it’s not going to let you get to that level until you have all

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the tools and the materials and supplies from the level’s prior that you need.

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And if you get stuck, you’ll have a hint pop up or you’ll have

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a magical creature jump out of the woods and tell you,

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you know, some ideas I’m where to go. So it doesn’t leave you hanging.

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Because of a video game had us playing and there was no way to

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win and we got stuck. What would we do?

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We would stop playing. On the flip side,

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video games also have all kinds of things to help build value.

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Not only do, you know, kids just value video games,

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but they also have like a shop and you can earn points and badges,

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you can go into the shop and buy fake clothes for your avatar and

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you can level up, you can get new avatar,

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so there’s all kinds of things built into the system so that you value

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it. So think about things in your home or your classroom that you want

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to motivate your children or your students to do.

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Do they believe they can do it or do they come from a lived

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experience of not succeeding,

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so know in a classroom setting or in an academic lens,

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you know, do they have the knowledge they need to learn what you’re trying

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to teach them? You know, you can’t learn addition if you don’t understand quantities

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and which group of set of things is bigger than the other.

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So expectancy really gets into kind of that differentiation of meeting people where they

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are and understanding what they’re capable of doing and what they need support to

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do. The second is that value piece value can come through

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extrinsic rewards and prizes,

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but it can also come through positive reinforcement and positive feedback.

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So I’m not proposing that we do everything like a video game.

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This example is essentially to show you people love video games and our our

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kids today and adult spend to tremendous amount of time playing them.

426
00:25:11,100 –> 00:25:15,760
The reason they’re so motivating and adapting is because they leverage this equation

427
00:25:15,761 –> 00:25:20,060
of motivation. So if we think of taking this equation and figuring out how

428
00:25:20,061 –> 00:25:22,960
to apply it in other areas of our life,

429
00:25:23,180 –> 00:25:25,600
we have a much better chance of achieving our goals.

430
00:25:26,040 –> 00:25:28,900
So we’re motivated to do a goal and we attend to,

431
00:25:28,960 –> 00:25:31,560
can I do it and do I want to do it and why?

432
00:25:31,880 –> 00:25:34,360
And if we get both of those in the positive,

433
00:25:34,700 –> 00:25:37,920
then we’re going to have motivation to stick to it.

434
00:25:38,520 –> 00:25:42,080
So feedback builds motivation when you think about expectancy,

435
00:25:42,580 –> 00:25:46,880
a couple tips for feedback is to make sure that you’re praising the effort

436
00:25:46,881 –> 00:25:50,280
over the innate qualities. If we say to somebody,

437
00:25:50,300 –> 00:25:53,320
you know, oh, you’re such a good math student.

438
00:25:53,440 –> 00:25:55,640
Look at that. You know how to do math. You’re so good.

439
00:25:56,280 –> 00:26:00,240
They don’t know that they can do math. And so that feedback is actually

440
00:26:00,241 –> 00:26:03,900
demotivating because it sets doubt in their expectancy.

441
00:26:04,320 –> 00:26:06,080
Like they’re like, gosh, I did it this time, but I don’t know what

442
00:26:06,081 –> 00:26:10,180
I did. So if you focus on the effort or the process over the

443
00:26:10,181 –> 00:26:12,400
product, then you’re going to build expectancy.

444
00:26:13,180 –> 00:26:17,140
So a couple of examples, like this time better than last time because you

445
00:26:17,141 –> 00:26:21,160
practiced your math facts every day. Or this time was better than last time

446
00:26:21,161 –> 00:26:25,880
because you stopped yourself from eating the ice cream and instead

447
00:26:25,881 –> 00:26:29,240
did 10 push-ups while you thought about whether or not you really wanted the

448
00:26:29,241 –> 00:26:31,380
ice cream and that stopped you from eating it.

449
00:26:31,620 –> 00:26:34,540
So you’re giving people learning about how they learn.

450
00:26:34,580 –> 00:26:39,200
You’re giving them feedback about how they stay successful versus just

451
00:26:39,201 –> 00:26:42,900
saying you’re great at it. The other piece is the value.

452
00:26:42,901 –> 00:26:46,660
So, you know, asking people, what happened when you,

453
00:26:46,661 –> 00:26:50,940
you know, waited your turn? What happened when you finished all your homework for

454
00:26:50,941 –> 00:26:53,020
the week? How did you feel when you,

455
00:26:53,021 –> 00:26:55,440
when you got the A on that assignment? So,

456
00:26:55,460 –> 00:26:58,960
connecting behaviors to feelings and being able to establish,

457
00:26:59,400 –> 00:27:03,440
you know, here’s the impact of all these efforts that you’re making will build

458
00:27:03,441 –> 00:27:07,780
that value. And I’ll give you an example of where feedback can really demotivate

459
00:27:07,781 –> 00:27:10,680
somebody. You know, if you’re a classroom teacher,

460
00:27:11,200 –> 00:27:15,300
imagine I come into your classroom and I watch you teach and at the

461
00:27:15,301 –> 00:27:18,200
end of the lesson, I come up to you and I’m like,

462
00:27:18,340 –> 00:27:23,120
that was amazing. You were the most amazing teacher ever and I’m bringing the

463
00:27:23,121 –> 00:27:25,500
Department of Education here tomorrow to watch you.

464
00:27:25,940 –> 00:27:29,320
You would be terrified because you don’t know what you did that was great.

465
00:27:29,480 –> 00:27:31,160
So you would be like, I don’t know what I did. I’m just going

466
00:27:31,161 –> 00:27:34,300
to repeat the whole lesson again. As opposed to me saying,

467
00:27:34,620 –> 00:27:37,440
hey, I loved your classroom. Thank you for letting me come.

468
00:27:37,441 –> 00:27:41,960
I loved watching how the students transitioned when you transition students

469
00:27:41,961 –> 00:27:45,820
from group work to whole group work. They were all on task right away.

470
00:27:45,880 –> 00:27:49,180
You’re giving them specificity in what you’re looking at.

471
00:27:49,560 –> 00:27:52,740
The other thing when you think about praising the effort,

472
00:27:52,860 –> 00:27:55,840
you want that to be concrete, what you actually observed,

473
00:27:56,400 –> 00:27:58,720
not generalize. So for example,

474
00:27:58,860 –> 00:28:02,780
as a parent, imagine if something goes well with your child and I come

475
00:28:02,781 –> 00:28:05,460
up and say, I knew you could be a great parent if you just

476
00:28:05,461 –> 00:28:07,860
tried. You would be so insulted,

477
00:28:08,420 –> 00:28:11,980
as opposed to me saying, oh my gosh, that was such a great parenting

478
00:28:11,981 –> 00:28:16,600
practice that you just used because I watched you give direction to your child

479
00:28:16,601 –> 00:28:18,780
and I watched your child try it a couple times,

480
00:28:19,220 –> 00:28:21,280
get some feedback from you and then succeed.

481
00:28:21,800 –> 00:28:25,180
Now you know what I’m praising. So as you’re thinking about feedback,

482
00:28:25,480 –> 00:28:28,120
not all feedback is actually designed equally.

483
00:28:28,520 –> 00:28:32,340
You really want to think about how you’re focusing on people’s efforts in a

484
00:28:32,341 –> 00:28:36,980
specific way, rather than just who they are as people because that’s something they

485
00:28:36,981 –> 00:28:41,760
can’t control. And you also want to establish what’s the impact of positive choices

486
00:28:41,761 –> 00:28:45,440
that they’re making so that they can build that value of like,

487
00:28:45,460 –> 00:28:48,640
this is actually worth my time. If I don’t know how to do it,

488
00:28:48,641 –> 00:28:50,720
it’s worth my time to learn how to do it.

489
00:28:50,860 –> 00:28:54,960
And if I have been doing it well, it’s worth my time because my

490
00:28:54,961 –> 00:28:58,540
value has increased and it made a difference for me.

491
00:28:59,480 –> 00:29:01,640
A note on rewards and incentives. In fact,

492
00:29:01,960 –> 00:29:04,280
the the Nobel Peace Prize I don’t know, at this point,

493
00:29:04,300 –> 00:29:09,160
probably eight, nine years ago was one by an economist who studied rewards

494
00:29:09,161 –> 00:29:11,260
and incentives across society,

495
00:29:11,420 –> 00:29:16,260
not just with kids, but with everybody. And the overarching finding from his

496
00:29:16,261 –> 00:29:20,320
research was a new behavior that’s an effort to do,

497
00:29:20,740 –> 00:29:25,420
an extrinsic reward, like a prize or a reward or

498
00:29:25,421 –> 00:29:29,660
something you give yourself, can have a big impact on our ability to stick

499
00:29:29,661 –> 00:29:33,000
to it. So, you know, going back to the goal of I’m going to

500
00:29:33,001 –> 00:29:35,340
go to the gym more often, you know, saying,

501
00:29:35,540 –> 00:29:37,760
okay, if I go to the gym three times this week,

502
00:29:37,920 –> 00:29:40,120
I’m going to buy myself a new pair of shoes.

503
00:29:40,560 –> 00:29:44,780
That can work really, really well when you are trying to learn a new

504
00:29:44,781 –> 00:29:49,720
behavior. If it’s a behavior, you already value and that you’re already doing

505
00:29:49,721 –> 00:29:52,880
or trying to do. It’s an intrinsic motivation,

506
00:29:53,780 –> 00:29:55,860
then you shouldn’t reward those behaviors.

507
00:29:55,861 –> 00:29:59,160
And what we see a lot of times in schools is they set up

508
00:29:59,161 –> 00:30:03,800
these positive behavior intervention support plans with these token economies and

509
00:30:03,801 –> 00:30:05,940
they might say, everybody here is going to,

510
00:30:05,941 –> 00:30:08,960
you know, our expectation as we show respect to each other.

511
00:30:09,380 –> 00:30:12,600
Well, maybe a lot of those children that come to you already intrinsically are

512
00:30:12,601 –> 00:30:16,840
respectful people because they’ve been taught that and it’s been reinforced in their home

513
00:30:16,841 –> 00:30:19,300
and early on, they were already rewarded for it.

514
00:30:19,540 –> 00:30:21,960
If you start to reward them for that behavior,

515
00:30:22,340 –> 00:30:26,880
they will actually stop doing that behavior unless they get the reward.

516
00:30:28,360 –> 00:30:30,680
So when we’re learning a new behavior,

517
00:30:31,060 –> 00:30:33,340
those external rewards are really important.

518
00:30:33,820 –> 00:30:36,560
And we must explicitly teach those expectations.

519
00:30:37,300 –> 00:30:40,600
So for example, I have the dog that cute little dog on this screen,

520
00:30:40,780 –> 00:30:43,800
when we get a puppy and we want to teach the puppy how to

521
00:30:43,801 –> 00:30:47,580
sit. We say sit and the puppy stares at us like we’re a Martian.

522
00:30:48,640 –> 00:30:50,840
We don’t kick the puppy, we don’t insult the puppy,

523
00:30:50,920 –> 00:30:55,060
we don’t punish the puppy. Instead, we wait until we see the puppy doing

524
00:30:55,061 –> 00:30:59,460
that behavior and then we reward it and we name it and the naming

525
00:30:59,461 –> 00:31:03,280
of it is super important because again when we’re thinking about achieving a goal

526
00:31:03,281 –> 00:31:07,760
so maybe your goal is I want to be more respectful but the reality

527
00:31:07,761 –> 00:31:11,820
is what is respectful so it goes back to that slide like what is

528
00:31:11,821 –> 00:31:16,360
physical health what is academic achievement what is you know defining that

529
00:31:16,361 –> 00:31:20,980
for yourself so when the dog sits down you say sit and

530
00:31:20,981 –> 00:31:23,820
you give them the reward and that teaches their brain,

531
00:31:24,180 –> 00:31:27,100
that highway in their brain, when I sit down,

532
00:31:27,380 –> 00:31:29,940
it is called sit, and then good things happen.

533
00:31:30,320 –> 00:31:33,300
And it starts to build that pathway.

534
00:31:33,600 –> 00:31:35,620
And when you think about a dog, you know,

535
00:31:35,780 –> 00:31:39,040
when they’re first learning a trick, you give them treats all the time,

536
00:31:39,060 –> 00:31:41,920
because you want positive positive positive reinforcement.

537
00:31:42,480 –> 00:31:44,760
Eventually, when you have a dog and you say sit down,

538
00:31:44,761 –> 00:31:48,300
you don’t treat them anymore, because they already know to sit down,

539
00:31:48,301 –> 00:31:50,920
and they get, they’ve had enough positive reinforcement.

540
00:31:51,260 –> 00:31:53,900
It’s just intrinsic. They know they’re going to sit down and please their owner

541
00:31:53,901 –> 00:31:58,500
when they follow commands. So we can take a lesson from this behaviorism

542
00:31:58,501 –> 00:32:02,260
because we are all animals and we all behave in the same kind of

543
00:32:02,261 –> 00:32:04,560
ways. We look for rewards,

544
00:32:04,800 –> 00:32:08,120
we name our behaviors and then we reinforce them.

545
00:32:08,860 –> 00:32:11,000
When we give incorrect rewards,

546
00:32:11,300 –> 00:32:14,100
part of the problem is it actually decreases our motivation.

547
00:32:14,820 –> 00:32:19,640
So rewarding behaviors we already do and already value destroys that

548
00:32:19,641 –> 00:32:23,840
motivation. And I’ll give you an example. About 10 years ago,

549
00:32:24,220 –> 00:32:28,960
the National Government funded a project in Ohio called the Teacher and Senate

550
00:32:28,961 –> 00:32:33,940
Fund. This project was designed to challenge the current way that we pay teachers.

551
00:32:34,460 –> 00:32:38,300
So right now you get paid based on years of experience and education level.

552
00:32:38,320 –> 00:32:42,860
And they wanted to create new strategic compensation models that would reward

553
00:32:42,861 –> 00:32:47,440
teachers differently so that your superstar teachers could potentially get a

554
00:32:47,441 –> 00:32:50,460
raise or a bonus that we would reward them for their outcomes.

555
00:32:51,240 –> 00:32:55,260
So I was on this project and we went through this research on incentives

556
00:32:55,261 –> 00:32:57,820
and rewards and we challenged the schools.

557
00:32:57,960 –> 00:33:02,320
We said, please don’t reward people for what they already do because it’s good

558
00:33:02,321 –> 00:33:06,260
for kids. And some schools listened to us and some schools didn’t.

559
00:33:06,300 –> 00:33:09,820
The schools that didn’t when the grant dried up which we knew it was

560
00:33:09,821 –> 00:33:14,260
going to and then they started asking teachers to do things that they had

561
00:33:14,261 –> 00:33:17,860
been doing for years. Like, you know, maybe a teacher ran a club with

562
00:33:17,861 –> 00:33:21,200
some kids because, you know, I like to knit so I’m going to do

563
00:33:21,201 –> 00:33:23,720
a knitting club and let the kids come in and learn how to knit.

564
00:33:23,860 –> 00:33:26,040
They just did it because it was good for kids and it was fun

565
00:33:26,041 –> 00:33:29,940
and it was something they already valued. What happened then was when they had

566
00:33:29,941 –> 00:33:34,080
been rewarded for that behavior. After the money dried up and they said,

567
00:33:34,260 –> 00:33:37,520
well, you need to do your knitting club. They not only would not do

568
00:33:37,521 –> 00:33:40,800
it but they were furious that they were being asked to do these things

569
00:33:40,801 –> 00:33:45,560
without compensation. And so we had given an extrinsic reward for

570
00:33:45,561 –> 00:33:48,120
an intrinsic behavior. So,

571
00:33:48,280 –> 00:33:52,380
as you’re trying to change behaviors, be very careful about how you are structuring

572
00:33:52,381 –> 00:33:55,760
your rewards and incentives. correct rewards,

573
00:33:55,980 –> 00:34:00,640
we’ll destroy altruistic behavior. We end up in a transactional culture where it’s,

574
00:34:00,720 –> 00:34:03,580
well, I’m doing this for me, what do I get if I do it?

575
00:34:03,581 –> 00:34:07,560
And it creates a me-centered culture. And most of the schools that,

576
00:34:07,561 –> 00:34:11,400
you know, I work with have what’s called portrait of graduates and they are

577
00:34:11,401 –> 00:34:15,940
really looking at, you know, these characteristics of students that they want to develop

578
00:34:15,941 –> 00:34:19,040
beyond academic and technical certifications.

579
00:34:19,480 –> 00:34:24,260
Home school parents are about developing their children into functioning adults

580
00:34:24,261 –> 00:34:28,160
that are, you know, community-minded and family-minded.

581
00:34:28,620 –> 00:34:33,120
And if we start to create a reward system where we’re rewarding them for

582
00:34:33,121 –> 00:34:36,060
behaviors that are just part of our peer persuasion,

583
00:34:36,061 –> 00:34:39,200
part of how we do business and our family or in our classroom,

584
00:34:40,000 –> 00:34:43,880
we end up with a me-centered culture. And I’ve actually talked to a lot

585
00:34:43,881 –> 00:34:47,040
of teachers who have had been using these token economies,

586
00:34:47,460 –> 00:34:49,880
and they’re like, I can’t get these kids to do anything. If I want

587
00:34:49,881 –> 00:34:52,180
them to push their chairs in, they look at me like,

588
00:34:52,181 –> 00:34:54,720
what are you giving me? Or I don’t want them to run in the

589
00:34:54,721 –> 00:34:58,440
hall. And so they lose the fact that these are just things that I

590
00:34:58,441 –> 00:35:01,440
should be doing, and instead everything becomes,

591
00:35:01,580 –> 00:35:04,300
what do I get for it? So,

592
00:35:04,301 –> 00:35:08,860
some conclusions and takeaways from today is that behavior change is hard.

593
00:35:09,140 –> 00:35:13,560
It is hard. An automaticity of behavior takes repetition and time.

594
00:35:13,640 –> 00:35:17,560
It takes paving those exit ramps over and over and over again,

595
00:35:17,960 –> 00:35:22,500
and finding that clarity and tenacity and support to help you build new

596
00:35:22,501 –> 00:35:25,720
pathways. And all goals are not created equally.

597
00:35:26,040 –> 00:35:28,420
We want to make sure that we’re creating smart goals,

598
00:35:28,720 –> 00:35:33,300
that we’re creating goals that specific and measurable and attainable and realistic

599
00:35:33,301 –> 00:35:37,160
for us. We want to leverage that motivation equation,

600
00:35:37,660 –> 00:35:40,560
which basically says, can I do it and do I want to do it?

601
00:35:40,900 –> 00:35:43,800
So if we’ve set a goal, we probably want to do it,

602
00:35:44,040 –> 00:35:46,100
but then maybe we don’t know how to do it.

603
00:35:46,200 –> 00:35:49,160
So then our expectancy goes down and we lose motivation.

604
00:35:50,100 –> 00:35:52,120
So sometimes we set goals that,

605
00:35:52,121 –> 00:35:54,900
you know, other people set for us that we’re not really all that bought

606
00:35:54,901 –> 00:35:58,060
into. And so at that point, we can do those behaviors,

607
00:35:58,061 –> 00:36:00,140
but we don’t want to. And so then again,

608
00:36:00,240 –> 00:36:04,840
we don’t attain our goals. We also want to support goal attainment by

609
00:36:04,841 –> 00:36:06,920
building that efficacy. So,

610
00:36:06,921 –> 00:36:09,840
you know, just do it, force ourselves to do it,

611
00:36:10,080 –> 00:36:13,360
have a peer partner or somebody that you can watch who does it so

612
00:36:13,361 –> 00:36:15,840
that you understand what it means,

613
00:36:16,000 –> 00:36:20,360
that you understand what actual actions will lead you to your goal.

614
00:36:20,620 –> 00:36:22,800
We want to give some support,

615
00:36:22,880 –> 00:36:27,100
some peer support in regard to celebrating so that when we have that emotional

616
00:36:27,101 –> 00:36:31,640
and we’re really proud of ourselves that we’re giving space for our friends and

617
00:36:31,641 –> 00:36:35,300
family or our students to do their horn and say,

618
00:36:35,600 –> 00:36:38,300
hey, I did this and I’m really proud of myself and maybe it wasn’t

619
00:36:38,301 –> 00:36:43,060
perfect but it was the first step. We also want to reward new behaviors

620
00:36:43,061 –> 00:36:47,960
externally and reward existing behaviors with feedback that’s

621
00:36:47,961 –> 00:36:50,840
positive and not with external rewards.

622
00:36:51,540 –> 00:36:55,760
We want to frame feedback about the effort and not a person’s attribute.

623
00:36:56,280 –> 00:37:00,480
And finally, just want some patience and some clarity and some stickiness.

624
00:37:01,000 –> 00:37:03,360
So those are the conclusions and takeaways today.

625
00:37:03,920 –> 00:37:06,800
If you have questions, you can put them in the chat box.

626
00:37:06,980 –> 00:37:10,340
You can always reach out to me at lisa@jakapa.com.

627
00:37:10,440 –> 00:37:14,100
If you have any questions or you want to run through what you’re trying

628
00:37:14,101 –> 00:37:16,820
to do for your family, for yourself,

629
00:37:17,520 –> 00:37:21,120
for the students that you work with, and I’m always happy to help.

630
00:37:21,121 –> 00:37:24,380
So have a great day and enjoy your long weekend.

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